Trichomonas Vaginalis: A Comprehensive Overview of Transmission and Epidemiology
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that infects the urogenital tract of both men and women. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the world, with an estimated 156 million cases each year. In this article, we will provide an overview of Trichomonas vaginalis and its characteristics, as well as the transmission and epidemiology of the infection.

Trichomonas vaginalis: Overview and Characteristics

Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite that resides in the urogenital tract of humans. It was first identified in 1836 by the French scientist Alfred Donné. The organism is pear-shaped and has four anterior flagella and one posterior flagellum, which it uses for motility.

In women, Trichomonas vaginalis primarily infects the vagina and cervix, but it can also infect the urethra and bladder. In men, it typically infects the urethra, but it can also infect the prostate gland and epididymis. The parasite can survive for several hours outside the body in moist environments, such as on damp towels or toilet seats.

Transmission and Epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomonas vaginalis is primarily transmitted through
sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The infection is more common in women than in men, and it is most prevalent in women aged 16-35 years.
In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 3.7 million people are infected with Trichomonas vaginalis each year. However, many cases go undiagnosed and unreported, so the true number of cases is likely much higher. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are 156 million new cases of Trichomonas vaginalis each year.
Certain factors can increase the risk of contracting Trichomonas vaginalis. These include having multiple sexual partners, having a history of STIs, engaging in unprotected sex, and having a weakened immune system.
In addition to sexual transmission, Trichomonas vaginalis can also be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth. This can result in a rare but serious infection in the newborn, called congenital trichomoniasis.


Trichomonas vaginalis is a common and easily transmissible STI that can cause a variety of health problems if left untreated. It is important to practice safe sex and to get regular STI screenings to prevent the spread of Trichomonas vaginalis and other STIs. If you suspect that you may be infected with Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

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