03/02/2023
The PCR fundamentals
What are PCR fundamentals?

PCR, Polymerase chain reaction, is a molecular testing technique that amplifies genetic material so that it can be detected. In order to test for a specific genetic sequence, the user must first have an extensive theoretical knowledge about the subject. This theoretical knowledge encompasses the basic building blocks of life, DNA, all the way up to how those building blocks orchestrate living mechanisms.

DNA is a double helix comprised of three chemical components: phosphate, deoxyribose, and four nitrogenous bases. The phosphate group and the deoxyribose constitute the “backbone” while the nitrogenous bases connect two “backbones” together. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Each nucleotide always pairs with its corresponding base due to structural requirements. In DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine (Peter J. Russell, 2010).

DNA is essentially a biological codex that gives rise to life. Once a specific genetic sequence is determined, PCR can be utilized. To begin PCR, a primer needs to be developed. Primers are the antithesis to a pre-determined genetic sequence and are the starting point of PCR.

DNA is a double helix comprised of three chemical components: phosphate, deoxyribose, and four nitrogenous bases. The phosphate group and the deoxyribose constitute the “backbone” while the nitrogenous bases connect two “backbones” together. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Each nucleotide always pairs with its corresponding base due to structural requirements. In DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine (Peter J. Russell, 2010).
DNA is essentially a biological codex that gives rise to life. Once a specific genetic sequence is determined, PCR can be utilized. To begin PCR, a primer needs to be developed. Primers are the antithesis to a pre-determined genetic sequence and are the starting point of PCR.

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